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联合国工发组织总干事采访:绿色产业政策助力绿色复苏

发布日期:2020-08-21 来源:国际司 浏览:

新冠疫情给我们带来了空前的挑战,同时也造成了异常的经济衰退。预计,2020年全球经济将缩水3-6%,导致制造业生产下降,失业率上升以及贫困人口增加。据2020年可持续发展目标报告显示,七千一百万人口将重新陷入极度贫困,数十年的宝贵发展可能将遭到逆转。

在本次采访中,联合国工业发展组织总干事李勇探讨了有针对性的绿色产业政策和绿色工业投资将如何引导后疫情时代复苏的必要结构性转变,同时与气候变化《巴黎协定》和《2030可持续发展议程》的目标相契合,促进可持续经济增长以及创造就业。
首先,绿色复苏能促进经济复苏。绿色产业政策和投资如何帮助各国脱离目前的经济危机?
各国正在采用特殊的措施来应对新冠疫情带来的健康和经济困境。我们现在的应对方式将塑造未来的社会和经济形态,各国政府需要在未来的20年中投资超20万亿美元,用来实现气候和可持续发展相关目标。因此,令人鼓舞的是,许多政治领导者和民间社会共同呼吁“绿色复苏和转型”。
这就是我们需要绿色产业政策的地方。此类政府措施旨在加速工业结构转型,推动整体经济低碳节能发展,同时提高生产力、提升工业和经济整体比较优势。采用绿色标准和绿色认证可以将企业产品区别于其他同类产品,并且使企业或国家处于相对优势地位。相较于其他产业可持续性较低的资金支出,绿色工业投资对经济有着更深远的影响;绿色工业投资将促进创造就业,消除贫困,这对我们追求的绿色复苏意义重大。
绿色产业政策和投资如何帮助各国更有效地面对未来更大的环境挑战?
工业产生的温室气体排放量持续增加,据经济部门统计,已成为三大排放源之一。针对性绿色产业政策,特别是加速资源密集型产业和碳密集型产业进行绿色转型的政策,在我们共同努力应对气候紧急状况时发挥重要作用。在这一点上,新冠危机期间提出的刺激复苏计划给我们提供了一个千载难逢的机会,以较低的经济政治成本,改写传统的行业标准,推进所谓的“绿色工业革命”。
一些国家正在利用这个难得的契机。例如,欧盟委员会正在推动《欧洲绿色协议》(一系列旨在实现2050年欧洲气候中性的政策举措)成为其复苏战略的核心。与此同时,德国已将资金投入电动交通,这是朝着气候友好型运输和能源政策迈出的重要一步。
通过投资技术来控制排放并发展新清洁技术产业,可以使各国增强复原力并限制进一步的气候破坏,同时提高其当今和未来全球绿色经济中的竞争力。
为了应对类似危机,在短期和长期角度各国分别能采用怎样的绿色产业政策措施和工具?
首先,我们需谨记各国国情各不相同。政策需根据各国国情量体裁衣,从而在控制潜在风险的同时做到利益最大化。
就应急反应而言,各国应设法维持其现有产业及其工作岗位,特别是绿色产业及其工作,同时还应确保国家援助与严格的社会和环境条件挂钩。例如,各国可能会采取创新性政策,以重新激活生产和供应链,并鼓励企业重组以建立和重新定位生产能力,以增强对未来冲击的抵御能力。早期的例子是工发组织向亚美尼亚提供的支持。工发组织通过与国家卫生部门合作将三家多元化生产口罩的服装制造商联系起来,以满足该国对口罩不断增长的需求。
就长期而言,国家应采取促进创新和循环发展的针对性绿色产业政策,从而建立可持续并且有复原力的制造业以应对未来的挑战。为了实现这一目标,在我们为全球生产网络和价值链相关组织确定新的替代方案时,对绿色技术和资源效率工具的投资将成为关键。
能力建设和学习如何为有复原力的绿色经济复苏和转型奠定基石?
为确保绿色复苏既具公平性又具有社会包容性,增强知识和发展技能显得尤为重要。各国必须拥有强大的知识基础,以评估政府工作成效。例如,公务员需分析和了解可再生能源推广对绿色工作岗位产生的影响。而行业协会需充分了解与本地企业交易环境商品的成本和收益。
公众和所有相关利益攸关方的教育和能力建设对于绿色复苏和转型至关重要。政府应作出明确承诺,支持整个公共部门的领导,并制定明确的战略愿景,以支持宏观经济目标。PAGE的新绿色产业政策线上课程(旨在促进高技术水平上的绿色产业政策学习)作为一个重要的工具,可以成为各国制定新冠疫情经济应对方案的重要学习资源。
PAGE的新线上课程《绿色产业政策:促进竞争力和结构转型》,由联合国工业发展组织、联合国环境规划署和联合国训练研究所共同编写,是《绿色复苏学习》计划的一部分。该课程和新系列中的其他课程可在联合国训练研究所的“UN CC:e-Learn”平台上在线学习。
 
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought unprecedented challenges and caused an exceptional economic downturn. It is foreseen that the global economy will shrink by 3-6% in 2020, resulting in losses of manufacturing production, an increase in unemployment and rising poverty. An estimated 71 million people are expected to be pushed back into extreme poverty according to the Sustainable Development Goals Report 2020, with decades of precious development progress potentially being reversed.
In this interview, LI Yong, Director General of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), discusses how targeted green industrial policies and investments in green industries can lead to the structural changes necessary to recover from COVID-19, with opportunities to boost sustainable economic growth and create jobs in line with the goals of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
A green recovery is one that—first of all—promotes economic recovery. How can green industrial policy and investments in green industries help countries to recover from the current economic crisis?
Countries are adopting exceptional measures to tackle the health and economic consequences of COVID-19. Our response now will shape our societies and economies for the future, and governments will need to invest more than $20 trillion over the next 20 years to meet climate and sustainable development objectives. It is therefore encouraging that many political leaders and civil society movements are calling for a “green recovery and transformation.”
This is where green industrial policy comes in. It refers to government measures that aim to accelerate the structural transformation of industry and the wider economy towards becoming low-carbon and resource-efficient in ways that also enhance productivity and promote comparative advantage for industries and the economy as a whole. Adopting green standards and certifications, for example, enables firms to differentiate their products from those of their competitors—putting those firms or countries in a comparatively advantaged position. Investments in green industries can generate a higher economic impact than less sustainable expenditures in other sectors; this creates more job opportunities and strengthens poverty alleviation benefits, which are so important for the green recovery that we aim for.
How can green industrial policy and investments in green industries support countries to more effectively address the greater environmental challenges lying ahead?
Greenhouse gas emissions from industry continue to increase, and are among the top three sources by economic sector. Targeted green industrial policies, particularly those that accelerate the shift of resource- and carbon-intensive sectors onto greener trajectories, can play a central role as we work together to address the climate emergency. In this regard, the announcement of stimulus recovery packages during the COVID-19 crisis provides a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to re-write the traditional code of practice and advance a so-called “Green Industrial Revolution” at low economic and political cost.
Some countries are taking advantage of this window. The European Commission, for example, is pushing its European Green Deal—a set of policy initiatives designed to make Europe climate neutral by 2050—at the centre of its recovery strategy. Germany, meanwhile, has directed funds towards electric mobility—an important move towards a climate-friendly transport and energy policy.
By investing in technologies to control emissions and developing new clean technology industries, countries can build resilience to and limit further climate damage—as well as boost their competitiveness in the global greener economy of today and tomorrow.
What green industrial policy measures and tools can countries deploy in the short- and long-term to respond to these crises?
First of all, it is important to remember that no two countries are alike. Policies need to be designed according to the specific circumstances of the country, to maximize benefits while managing potential risks.
As an immediate response, countries should look to maintain their existing industries—in particular green industries—and their jobs, while also ensuring that state aid is linked to stringent social and environmental conditions. For example, countries may adopt innovative policies that seek to reactivate production and supply chains, and incentivize business restructuring to build, diversify, and re-orient productive capabilities in order to increase resilience to future shocks. An early example is the support that UNIDO provided to Armenia. This support was aimed at addressing the increased demand for facemasks in the country, by linking three apparel manufacturers that diversified into mask production in collaboration with the national health authorities.
As the next step, targeted green industrial policies that foster innovation and circularity should be at the forefront to build sustainable and resilient manufacturing against future disruptions. To achieve this, investments in green technologies and resource efficiency tools will be key as we identify new alternatives for the organization of global production networks and value chains.
How can capacity building and learning provide the necessary building blocks for a resilient, green economic recovery and transformation?
Enhancing knowledge and developing skills play a major role in ensuring that a green recovery is both equitable and socially inclusive. It is important that countries have a strong knowledge base in order to assess the effects of actions being taken by governments. For example, civil servants will need to analyze and understand the impacts of renewable energy promotion on green jobs. Industry associations will need to be aware of the cost and benefits of trading environmental goods with local companies.
Education and building the capacities of the public and all relevant stakeholders are vital for a green recovery and transformation. Clear government commitment, supporting leadership throughout the public sector, and a well-defined strategic vision should be in place to support macroeconomic objectives. This is why PAGE’s new Green Industrial Policy e-course—which is designed to advance learning on green industrial policy at a high technical level—is an excellent tool, and can be a key resource for countries as they plan their economic responses to COVID-19.
PAGE’s new course on Green Industrial Policy: Promoting Competitiveness and Structural Transformation, has been developed by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), and forms part of PAGE’s “Learning for a Green Recovery” initiative. The course, and others in this new series, can be taken online at UNITAR’s UN CC:e-Learn platform.
(来源 联合国工业发展组织)
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