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数亿工作岗位流失 年轻人可能成为 “封锁的一代”

发布日期:2020-06-22 来源:国际司 浏览:
据联合国《国际劳工组织疫情监测第四版》报告,自新冠疫情暴发以来,全球失业率迅速大幅上升。2020年第一季度的工作时长预计损失4.8%,约相当于1.35亿个每周工作48小时的全职岗位。
作为全球经济引擎的许多中小企业都可能无法生存。受影响的年轻人在整个职业生涯中的收入和所能获得的技能水平降低,年轻人甚至可能成为 “封锁的一代”。
关于新冠病毒与劳工世界政策简报的讲话
联合国秘书长
安东尼奥·古特雷斯
2019冠状病毒病大流行使劳工世界发生了天翻地覆的变化。
The COVID-19 pandemic has turned the world of work upside down.
全球每个劳动者、每家企业和每个角落都受到影响。数亿计工作岗位已经流失。
Every worker, every business and every corner of the globe has been affected. Hundreds of millions of jobs have been lost.
 
柬埔寨工厂流水线上的工人。
非正规经济中的辛勤劳作者往往既无工作权利又无社会保障,他们的收入仅在这场危机的头一个月估计就下降了60%。
Those toiling in the informal economy— often without rights at work and social protection — are projected to have suffered a 60 percent decline in earnings in the first month of the crisis alone.
妇女尤其受到严重冲击——她们在许多受疫情最严重影响的部门工作,同时承担着不断增加的无偿护理工作的最沉重负担。
Women have been especially hard hit — working in many of the most critically affected sectors, while also carrying the greatest burden of increasing levels of unpaid care work.
 
加纳阿克拉的工厂工人为国际市场生产衬衫。
年轻人、残疾人和其他许多人都遇到巨大困难。作为全球经济引擎的许多中小企业都可能无法生存。
Young people, persons with disabilities, and so many others are facing tremendous difficulties. Many small and medium-sized enterprises – the engine of the global economy – may not survive.
劳工世界的这场危机给不满和焦虑情绪火上浇油。
This crisis in the world of work is adding fuel to an already burning fire of discontent and anxiety.
 
2019冠状病毒病造成的大量失业和收入损失在社会、政治和经济方面不断侵蚀社会融合,破坏国家和地区稳定。
Massive unemployment and loss of income from COVID-19 are further eroding social cohesion and destabilizing countries and regions— socially, politically and economically.
的确,许多公司和工人都以创新方式作出调整以适应不断变化的环境。例如,数百万劳动者一夜之间转入在线工作,在许多方面取得惊人成功。
Yes, many companies and workers have adapted in innovative ways to the changing circumstances.  For example, millions have moved overnight to working online, in many cases with surprising success.  
然而,最弱势群体却有可能越来越脆弱,贫困国家和社区则有可能进一步落在后面。
But the most vulnerable are at risk of becoming ever more vulnerable, and poor countries and communities risk falling even further behind.
 
我们需要在以下三个方面采取行动
We need action on three fronts: 
第一,为高危劳动者、企业、就业岗位和收入前景提供即时支持,以避免关门停业、岗位丧失和收入下降。
First, immediate support for at-risk workers, enterprises, jobs and incomes to avoid closures, job losses and income decline.
第二,在解除封锁后,更加关注健康和经济活动,保障工作场所的安全以及妇女和危患人口的权利。
Second, greater focus on both health and economic activity after lockdowns ease, with workplaces that are safe, and rights for women and populations at risk.
 
世界劳工组织一项计划正在为没有创业基础的刚果年轻人提供培训。
第三,我们现在要动员起来,推动实现以人为本、绿色、可持续和包容各方的复苏,利用新技术的潜力为所有人创造体面工作,并借鉴公司和劳动者适应当今时代的创造性积极办法。
Third, we need to mobilize now for a human-centred, green and sustainable, inclusive recovery that harnesses the potential of new technologies to create decent jobs for all — and draws on the creative and positive ways companies and workers have adapted to these times.
许多人都在谈论要在这场危机之后建立一个“新常态”。但我们不要忘记,2019冠状病毒病疫情之前的世界与常态相差甚远。
 
工人在印度尼西亚的工厂组装和制造电子产品。
There is a lot of talk about the need for a “new normal” after this crisis. But let’s not forget that the pre-COVID-19 world was far from normal. 
日益加剧的不平等、系统性性别歧视、年轻人缺乏机会、停滞不前的工资水平、失控的气候变化,所有这些绝非“正常”。
Rising inequalities, systemic gender discrimination, lack of opportunities for young people, stagnant wages, runaway climate change — none of these things were “normal”.
这场大流行病暴露了严重的短板、弱点和断层。在这场危机之后,劳工世界的形态不能也不应一成不变。
The pandemic exposed tremendous shortcomings, fragilities and fault lines. The world of work cannot and should not look the same after this crisis.
 
一名青年正在一家小型超市工作。
现在到了全球、区域和国家协调一致共同努力的时候,要为所有人创造体面工作并在此基础上实现绿色、包容和有复原力的复苏。例如,税收制度从工资税改为碳排放税有助于朝着这个方向取得长足进展。
It is time for a coordinated global, regional and national effort to create decent work for all as the foundation of a green, inclusive and resilient recovery.  For example, a shift of taxation from payroll to carbon could help to go a long way in this direction.
我们只要在各级及时采取明智的行动并以《2030年可持续发展议程》为指导,就可以摆脱危机而变得更加强大,创造更好的就业机会,并给所有人带来更光明、更平等、更绿色的未来。
With smart and timely action at all levels, and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development as our guide, we can emerge from this crisis stronger, with better jobs and a brighter, more equal and greener future for all. 
(来源 联合国)
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主办单位:中华人民共和国人力资源和社会保障部